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Student Perspectives: Changes in Conceptualization and Assessment of Resilience
StressPoints
Date posted: 07/28/2022
Topic: Student and Early Career
Over time, scholars have asked, is resilience a trait or a state? Typically, traits (i.e., personality traits) are inherent, stable, and require great effort to develop when absent. For example, Klohnen (1996) describes ego-resiliency as “a personal trait comprised of confident optimism, productive and autonomous activity, interpersonal warmth and insight, and skilled expressiveness that leads to effective functioning in diverse areas of life.” On the other hand, states are transitory, and more accessible through learning (e.g., a person can learn to be in a mindful state). Connor and colleagues (2003) define resilience as a state, “a multi-dimensional characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subject to different life circumstances.” For example, a person could be more resilient in one context than another. The state-based perspective implies that we all have the capacity to be resilient.
SIG Spotlight: Understanding Resilience in Relation to the Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma and Complex PTSD
StressPoints
Date posted: 05/25/2022
Topic: Student and Early Career
Unresolved trauma in parents may inhibit their ability to physically and emotionally attach and bond to their children, producing trauma in the next generation. These parents may repeat the patterns of behavior that led to their own trauma which includes ideas about parenting (Hill, 2017). Understanding characteristics such as resilience that increase or decrease susceptibility to trauma and prevent the transmission to future generations is one way to help mental health professionals who provide trauma-informed care.
 
Student Perspectives: Interventions for Post-Concussion Syndrome Prevention Following ‎Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Recommendations and Future Directions‎
Date posted: 05/25/2022
Topic: Student and Early Career
Approximately 2.5 million people present to an emergency department each year due to traumatic brain injury (TBI; Taylor et al., 2017). An estimated 75% of these cases involve mild TBI (mTBI; i.e., concussion) and do not require hospitalization (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center or Injury Prevention and Control, 2003). Thus, individuals are triaged and treated in the emergency department, released to rest at home, and receive outpatient follow-up care as needed. Following mTBI, it is not uncommon for people to experience some physical and sensory symptoms, such as headaches, blurred vision and nausea, and cognitive symptoms, such as difficulties with concentration, disorientation, and trouble sleeping. Most people fully recover from these symptoms within three months of the injury (Permenter et al., 2022). When concussion symptoms persist beyond what is expected in typical recovery (i.e., three months for mTBI), post-concussion syndrome (PCS) may be diagnosed (Permenter et al., 2022). Due to a lack of consensus around specific diagnostic criteria for PCS diagnosis, prevalence estimates vary between 11% to around 30% (Dean et al., 2012; Spinos et al., 2010; Voormolen et al., 2018).
Student Perspectives: What is #TraumaTok?‎
StressPoints
Date posted: 03/31/2022
Topic: Student and Early Career
Outside academic spaces and therapy offices, trauma has been a growing topic on social media. Platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, YouTube, and now TikTok all have trauma content. In these online spaces, formal content (e.g., scientific articles, infographics, video conferences) is mingled with informal content on trauma (e.g., quotes from bestseller books on trauma, memes, personal stories). Whether formal or informal, online content on trauma seemingly brings together the perspectives of practitioners, researchers, coaches, and trauma survivors. The topic seems to be getting a lot of visibility. For instance, #trauma and #ptsd have millions of publications on Instagram. YouTube channels on trauma or subtopics of trauma (e.g., Complex Trauma Recovery, Attachment Trauma, Betrayal Trauma) have hundreds of thousands of subscribers and millions of views. Some specialized forums on Reddit (i.e., subreddits) are dedicated to PTSD or C-PTSD and are organized with a set of rules and posting guidelines; they offer peer-to-peer support and have hundreds of thousands of subscribers.
Student Perspectives: Trauma-Informed Supervisors: How Can I Find One, and How Can I Be One?‎
StressPoints
Date posted: 01/27/2022
Topic: Student and Early Career
Clinical supervision is particularly important for trainees and has the potential to both prevent secondary traumatic stress (STS) and provide support to trainees experiencing STS (Baird & Kracen, 2006; Cieslak et al., 2013; Quinn & Nackerud, 2019).
Student Perspectives: Traumatic Stress Following Severe Injury: Providing Care in a Level 1 Trauma Center’s ‎Traumatic Injury Unit
StressPoints
Date posted: 12/2/2021
Topic: Student and Early Career
Unfortunately, people who sustain a traumatic injury are at an increased risk for numerous mental health conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety (Wiseman et al., 2013). PTSD prevalence rates are higher among individuals hospitalized for traumatic injury compared to the general population with estimates ranging between 26% to 31% (Joseph et al., 2020; Shih et al., 2010). 
Student Perspectives: Graduating and Interning During COVID-19: What Does the ‎Next Generation of Clinicians Need to Take on This Challenge?‎
StressPoints
Date posted: 07/29/2021
Topic: Student and Early Career
With the rapid rollout of safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 worldwide, the world can breathe easier. Unfortunately, as this global threat is receding, its impact on mental health is becoming increasingly apparent. The problem is such that some experts speak of an “echo pandemic” (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2020). For example, rates of self-reported depression, anxiety and psychological distress have been steadily rising since the beginning of the pandemic (Dozois, 2020). Unfortunately, though vulnerable people and their families will likely need health care and mental health workers, these professionals also show signs of significant strain (Malvardy et al., 2021; Spoorthy et al., 2020). Specifically, rates of anxiety, depression, sleep disorders and posttraumatic stress are soaring among health care workers (Malvardy et al., 2021).
Student Perspectives: Student Therapists’ Perspectives on Termination with Clients with Complex Trauma
StressPoints
Date posted: 04/1/2021
Topic: Student and Early Career

For many doctoral-level training programs, psychology trainees are limited to one year or less of therapeutic work with clients per clinical practicum rotation. This can be difficult for both students and clients alike, as transferring clients is not always clinically indicated and can seem abrupt and unnatural. It is estimated that 80% of student-clinicians must forcibly terminate with their patients, with more than 50% of these trainees reporting being inadequately prepared to terminate therapy (Zuckerman & Mitchell, 2004). Likewise, the duration of clinical rotations often requires clients to cope with the loss of a therapist each year. Due to many training sites using a sliding pay scale, individuals of lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by the one-year training model (Aubry, Hunsley, Josephson, & Vito, 2000; Thompson, Graham, Brockberg, Chin, & Jones, 2017). Consequently, clients who fall within a lower socioeconomic status often become entrenched in the cycle of building intimacy and trust with a therapist and then “losing them” at the end of the training year. 

Student Perspectives: Application Season in the Time of COVID-19
StressPoints
Date posted: 11/24/2020
Topic: Student and Early Career
As students and trainees may have noticed, this year looks very different, in many ways, but specifically the application process for graduate school, internship and postdoctoral positions has changed drastically. While these are worrisome times, it is possible that the changes currently being made to lower the barriers for applicants in the time of COVID-19 may lead to important long-term changes that will ultimately benefit the world of clinical psychology.
Student Perspectives: Anger in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: What Are the Consequences and What Treatments Can Be Offered?
StressPoints
Date posted: 09/24/2020
Topic: Student and Early Career
During the World War II, researchers observed high levels of anger associated with exposure to traumatic events among soldiers presenting with what was then called “combat neurosis” (Grinker & Spielgel, 1945 in Morland et al., 2012). More recently, numerous studies have continued to show a close relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and both anger and hostility among veterans (Chemtob et al. 1997; Jakupcak et al., 2007; Morland et al., 2012; van Voorhees et al., 2019).
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