A Neglected Aspect of Refugee Relief Works: Secondary and Vicarious Traumatic Stress
With the number of refugees (about 80 million at present) increasing in the world recently, the need for refugee service providers (e.g., doctors, psychotherapists, lawyers, interpreters) to support this group and the workload of refugee service providers have also increased. Adverse effects of working with traumatized individuals on mental health are known. The most prominent effects are Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) and Vicarious Traumatic Stress (VTS).
Global Perspectives: Lineages of a Psychological Understanding of Mourning and Grief in China
Grief and mourning are expressed differently in every culture. However, research on bereaved populations has tended to be dominated by Western perspectives since Freud's (1917) Mourning and Melancholy
. Drawing from more recent bodies of knowledge in clinical psychology and psychiatry, health professionals have shown a shift in direction and have included the assessment and diagnoses of specific states of grief. Specifically, professionals have regarded certain states of grief as disorders or requiring assistance, such as prolonged grief disorder found in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision
(ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2020) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
, fifth edition, text revision (DSM-5-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2021). Furthermore, cultural differences in grief symptoms have been shown to exist as illustrated by a comparative study of Chinese- and German-speaking bereaved individuals (Stelzer et al., 2020).