Mass violence has evoked many emotions—sadness, grief, helplessness, anxiety, fear, and anger. These events have impacted many individuals and families who may be experiencing direct exposure to trauma or who are triggered by reminders of previous traumatic experiences. Below are select resources from ISTSS affiliates, partner organizations, and other related health organizations for providers, individuals, and families who may need support during this time.
For Mental Health Professionals
- Key Information - National Center for PTSD
- The Impact of Disaster and Mass Violence Events on Mental Health
Discusses normal and problematic responses to disaster, including bereavement complications, acute stress disorder, PTSD symptoms, and associated problems.
- Phases of Traumatic Stress Reactions Following Disaster and Mass Violence
Describes the typical phases of reaction to disaster and mass violence, including: impact, immediate, intermediate, and long term.
- Risk and Resilience Factors After Disaster and Mass Violence
Reviews the risk and resilience (or protective) factors at the individual, social, and community level that impact the influence of disaster or mass violence events on those
- Treatment - National Center for PTSD
- Manuals and Tools - National Center for PTSD and the National Child Traumatic Stress Network
- Immediate aftermath: Psychological First Aid (PFA): Field Operations Guide
PFA is an evidence-informed modular approach for assisting people in the immediate aftermath of disaster to reduce initial distress and to foster short and long-term adaptive functioning. The guide, created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, is available in multiple languages and includes handouts for survivors. Online training and a YouTube PFA Channel are available. See also the PFA mobile phone app.
- Long-term response: Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR) Guide
SPR aims to help survivors gain skills to manage distress and cope with post-disaster stress and adversity. SPR is intended to follow Psychological First Aid (PFA) in the weeks and months following disaster and mass violence events. The guide was created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network as well as others involved in disaster response; training information is available.
- From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network
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For Individuals, Parents, and Caregivers
- Trauma Basics
- Support for Individuals - National Center for PTSD
- Support for Children and Families
- Military / Veterans
- Leadership - Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress
- Other Resources
- SAMHSA Disaster Distress Helpline – call or text 1-800-985-5990 (for Spanish, press “2”) to be connected to a trained counselor 24/7/365.
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