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In order to make room for all the other exciting submissions in previous issues, I condensed this column in the last three issues. Without realizing it, I had fallen quite behind in sharing citations of recently published work in the field. Therefore, in this issue, I compiled those articles published this year that I had not previously shared in my column. It should be noted that these articles either came to my attention through my own experience and literature searches or from articles that ISTSS Society members sent to me.

Given the size of this list, I tried to categorize the articles under general topic headings (although many could be placed in multiple categories). Despite the fact this list is not comprehensive, some trends are visibly apparent. For example, it is clear that there has been a proliferation of research regarding biological and neurophysiological correlates of PTSD this year. Treatment of PTSD in adults continues to be an area of great focus, and there continues to be a growing amount of literature on motor vehicle accidents, human rights, children and adolescents and health. It is exciting to see so many articles on traumatic stress studies in the field.

Issues regarding PTSD diagnosis, susceptibility to PTSD & PTSD phenomenology

Alarcon R.D., Glover S.G., & Deering C.G. (1999). The cascade model: An alternative to comorbidity in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry, 62, 114-124.

Bowman, M. L. (1999). Individual differences in posttraumatic distress: Problems with the DSM-IV model. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 21-33.

Ford, J. D. (1999). Disorders of extreme stress following war-zone military trauma: Associated features of posttraumatic stress disorder or comorbid but distinct syndromes. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 6, 3-12.

Freedman, S. A., Brandes, D., & Shalev, A. (1999). Predictors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: A prospective study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 353-359.

Reynolds, M. &, Brewin, C. R. (1999). Intrusive memories in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 37, 201-215.

Yehuda, R. (1999). Biological factors associated with susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 34-39.

Diagnosis and Assessment

Honig, R. G., Grace, M. C., Lindy, J. D., Newman, C. J., & Titchener, J. L. (1999). Assessing long-term effects of trauma: Diagnosing symptoms of avoidance and numbing. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 483-485.

Zimmerman M., & Mattia J. I. (1999). Is posttraumatic stress disorder underdiagnosed in routine clinical settings? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 420-428.


Samson, A. Y., Bensen, S., & Nimmer, C. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care. The Journal of Family Practice, 48, 222-227.

Walker, A. M., Harris, G., & Houghton, J. (1999). Post-traumatic stress responses following liver transplantation in older children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 40, 363-374.

Walker E. A., Unutzer J., Rutter C., Gelfand A., Saunders K., VonKorff M., Koss M. P., & Katon W. (1999). Costs of health care use by women HMO members with a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 609-13.

Biology and Physiology

Baker, D. G., West, S. A., Nicholson, W. E., Ekhator, N. N., Kasckow, J. W., Hill, K. K., Bruce, A. B., Orth, D. N., & Geracioti, T.D. (1999). Serial CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone levels and adrenocortical activity in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 585-588.

Bremner, J. D. (1999). Does stress damage the brain? Biological Psychiatry, 45, 797-805.

Bremner, J. D., Staib, L. H., & Charney, D. S. (1999). Neural correlates of exposure to traumatic pictures and sound in Vietnam combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: A positron emission tomography study. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 806-816.

Davis, L. L., Clark, D. M., Kramer, G. L., Moeller, F. G., & Petty, F. (1999). D-fenfluramine challenge in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 928-930.

Gelernter, J., Southwick, S., Goodson, S., Morgan, A., Nagy, L., & Charney, D. S. (1999). No association between D-sub-2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) "A" system alleles, or DRD2 haplotypes, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 620-625.

Liberzon, I., Taylor, S. F., Amdur, R., Jung, T. D., Chamberlain, K. R., Minoshima, S., Koeppe, R. A., & Fig, L. M. (1999). Brain activation in PTSD in response to trauma-related stimuli. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 817-826.

Maes, M., Lin, A., & Scharpe, S. (1999). Serotonergic and noradrenergic markers of post-traumatic stress disorder with and without major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 188-200.

Maes, M., Lin, A., Delmeire, L., Gastel, A. V., Kenis, G., Jongh, R. D., Bosmans, E. (1999). Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder following accidental man-made traumatic events. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 833-839.

Morgan, C. A., & Grillon, C. (1999). Abnormal mismatch negativity in women with sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 827-832.

Ross, R. J., Ball, W. A., Sanford, L. D., Morrison, A. R., Dinges, D. F., Silver, S. M., Kribbs, N. B., Mulvaney, F. D., Gehrman, P. R., & McGinnis, D. E. (1999). Rapid eye movement sleep changes during the adaptation night in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 938-941.

Shin, L. M., McNally, R. J., Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., Metzger, L. J., Lasko, N. B., Orr, S. P., & Pitman, R. K. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: A PET investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 575-584.

Spivak, B., Vered, Y., Graff, E., Blum, I., Mester, R., & Weizman, A. (1999). Low platelet-poor plasma concentrations of serotonin in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 840-845.

Zubieta, J., Chinitz, J. A., Lombardi, U., Fig, L. M., Cameron, O. G., & Liberzon, I. (1999). Medial frontal cortex involvement in PTSD symptoms: A SPECT study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 259-264.

Children and Adolescents

Goenjian, A., Stilwell, B. M., Steinberg, A. M., Fairbanks, L. A., Galvin, M. R., Karayan, I., & Pynoos, R. S. (1999). Moral development and psychopathological interference in conscience functioning among adolescents after trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 376-384.

Lipschitz, D. S., Winegar, R. K., Hartnick, E., Foote, B., & Southwick, S. M. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in hospitalized adolescents: Psychiatric comorbidity and clinical correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 385-392.

Korol, M., Green, B. L., & Gleser, G. C. (1999). Children's responses to a nuclear waster disaster: PTSD symptoms and outcome prediction. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 368-375.

Miller, Laurence. (1999). Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in children and families: Basic principles and clinical applications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27, 21-34.

Verduyn, C., & Calam, R. M. (1999). Cognitive behavioral interventions with maltreated children and adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 197-207.

Wozniak, J., Crawford, M. H., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Spencer, T. J., Taylor, A., & Blier, H. K. (1999). Antecedents and complications of trauma in boys with ADHD: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 48-56.

Yule, W. (1999). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 80, 107-109.

Treatment and Predictors of Treatment

Cusack, K. & Spates, C. R. (1999). The cognitive dismantling of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 87-99.

Devilly, G. J., & Spence, S.H. (1999). The relative efficacy and treatment distress of EMDR and a cognitive-behavior trauma treatment protocol in the amelioration of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 131-157.

Foa, Edna B., Dancu, Constance V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Anonymous, S., & Gordon P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 194-200.

Glynn, S. M., Eth, S., Randolph, E. T., Foy, D. W., Urbaitis, M., Boxer, L., Paz, G. G., Leong, G. B., Firman, G., Salk, J. D., Katzman, J. W., & Crothers, J. (1999). A test of behavioral family therapy to augment exposure for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 243-251.

Gurguis, G. N. M., Andrews, R., Antai-Otong, D., Vo, S. P., Dikis, E. J., Orsulak, P. J., & Rush, A. J. (1999). Platelet alpha-sub-2-adrenergic receptor coupling efficiency to G-sub(i) protein in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder and normal controls. Psychopharmacology, 141, 258-266.

Helsley, S., Sheikh, T., Kim, Kye Y., & Park, S. K. (1999). ECT therapy in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 494-495.

Johnson, D. Read, Lubin, H., Rosenheck, R., Fontana, A., Charney, D., & Southwick, S. (1999). Comparison of outcome between homogeneous and heterogeneous treatment environments in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 187, 88-95.

Levin, P., Lazrove, S., & van der Kolk, B. (1999). What psychological testing and neuroimaging tell us about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 159-172.

Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (1999). Traumatic memories, eye movements, phobia, and panic: A critical note on the proliferation of EMDR. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 209-223.

Regehr, C., Cadell, S., & Jansen, K. (1999). Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 110-115.

Rogers, S., Silver, S. M., Goss, J., Obenchain, J., Willis, A., & Whitney, R. L. (1999). A single session, group study of exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in treating posttraumatic stress disorder among Vietnam War veterans: Preliminary data. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 119-130.

Rosen, Gerald M. (1999). Treatment fidelity and research on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 173-184.

Rosenheck, R., Fontana, A., & Stolar, M. (1999). Assessing quality of care: Administrative indicators and clinical outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder. Medical Care, 37, 180-188.

Rothschild, B. (1999). Making Trauma Therapy Safe. Self and Society, 27, 17-23.

Shapiro, F. (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and the anxiety disorders: Clinical and research implications of an integrated psychotherapy treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 35-67.

Simon, R. I. (1999). Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and checklist of factors influencing prognosis. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 6, 304-312.

Soliman, H. H. (1999). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Treatment outcomes for a Kuqaiti child. International Social Work, 42, 163-176.

Tarrier, N., Pilgrim, H., Sommerfield, C., Faragher, B., Reynolds, M., Graham, E., & Barrowclough, C. (1999). A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67,13-18.

van der Hart, O., & Nijenhuis, E. R. (1999). Bearing witness to uncorroborated trauma: The clinician's development of reflective belief. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 37-44.

Occupational Health, High-Risk Professions

Clarke, C. (1999). Treating post-traumatic stress disorder: Occupational therapist or counsellor? The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 136-142.

Corneil, W., Beaton, R., Murphy, S., Johnson, C., & Pike, K. (1999). Exposure to traumatic incidents and prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in urban firefighters in two countries. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 131-141.

Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, Carol S., Vance, Kelley, & Kao, Tzu-Cheg. Posttraumatic stress disorder and identification is disaster workers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 353-359.


Newman, E., Walker, E. A., & Gefland, A. (1999). Assessing the ethical costs and benefits of trauma-focused research. General Hospital Psychiatry, 21, 187-196.

Potentially Traumatic Events

Inpatient Hospitalization

Morrison, A. P., Bowe, S., Larkin, W., & Nothard, S. (1999). The psychological impact of psychiatric admission: Some preliminary findings. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 187, 250-253.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Bryant, R. A., & Harvey, A. G. (1999). The influence of traumatic brain injury on acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents. Brain Injury, 13, 15-22.

Levi, R. B., Drotar, D., & Taylor, H. G. (1999). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children following orthopedic or traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical Child psychology, 28, 232-243.

McMillan, T., & Jacobson, R. R. (1999). Traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 274-275.

Motor Vehicle Accidents

Frommberger, U., Stieglitz, R., Straub, S., Nyberg, E., Schlickewei, W., Kuner, E., & Berger, M. (1999). The concept of "sense of coherence" and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in traffic accident victims. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 343-348.

Koren, D., Arnon, I., & Klein, E. (1999). Acute stress response and posttraumatic stress disorder in traffic accident victims: A one-year prospective, follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 367-373.

Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., Epstein, R. S., Crowley, B., Kao, T., Vance, K., Craig, K. J., Dougall, A. L., & Baum, A. (1999). Acute and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 589-595.

Refugees, Human Rights Survivors, Concentration Camp Survivors

Favaro, A., Maiorani, M., & Santonastaso, P. (1999). Traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, and dissociative symptoms in a group of refugees from former Yugoslavia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 306-307.

Favaro, A., Rodella, F. C., & Santonastaso, P. (1999). Post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression among Italian Nazi concentration camp survivors: A controlled study 50 years later. Psychological Medicine, 29, 87-96.