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Toxic stress resulting from chronic exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, can lead to numerous health, social, and behavioral problems throughout the lifespan (Anda et al., 2006).Toxic stress resulting from chronic exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, can lead to numerous health, social, and behavioral problems throughout the lifespan (Anda et al., 2006).

Toxic stress resulting from chronic exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, can lead to numerous health, social, and behavioral problems throughout the lifespan (Anda et al., 2006).Toxic stress resulting from chronic exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, can lead to numerous health, social, and behavioral problems throughout the lifespan (Anda et al., 2006).