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Briefing Paper: Global Perspectives on the Trauma of Hate-Based Violence


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Briefing Paper Working Group Members


Bita Ghafoori Ph.D.
California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA

Yael Caspi Sc.D., M.A.,
Rambam Medical Health Care Center, Haifa, Israel

Carolina Salgado M.D.
Universidad Catolica del Maule, Maule, Chile

Maureen Allwood Ph.D.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, New York City, NY, USA

Johanna Kreither Ph.D.
Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile

José Luis Tejada M.D.
Centro de Salud Mental y Derechos Humanos (CINTRAS)

Tanya Hunt M.S.
Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Lynn C. Waelde Ph.D.
Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Ortal Slobodin Ph.D.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel

Mieko Failey, Esq., J.D.
LGBTQ Center Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA

Porter Gilberg M.S.
The LGBTQ Center Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA

Paulina Larrondo M.S.
Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Nadia Ramos M.D.
Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile

Anna von Haumeder B.A.
University of Vechta, Vechta, Germany

Kevin Nadal Ph.D.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, New York City, NY, USA

We gratefully acknowledge Michael Lieberman, Washington Counsel and Director
of the Civil Rights Policy Planning Center at the Anti-Defamation League for his
thoughtful review of this briefing paper. We also greatly appreciate the input of Dr.
Diane Elmore Borbon, Dr. Judith Bass, Dr. Debra Kaysen, Dr. Kathryn M. Magruder,
Dr. Elana Newman, Dr. Angela Nickerson, and Autumn Slaughter of the ISTSS Public
Health and Policy Committee. In addition, we would like to thank Dr. Julian Ford for his
valuable feedback on this document.

Suggested Citation: Ghafoori, B., Caspi, Y., Salgado, C., Allwood, M., Kreither, J., Tejada,
J.L., Hunt, T., Waelde, L.C., Slobodin, O., Failey, M., Gilberg, P., Larrondo, P., Ramos, N.,
von Haumeder, A., & Nadal, K. (2019). Global Perspectives on the Trauma of Hate-Based
Violence: An International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Briefing Paper.

Retrieved from www.istss.org/hate-based-violence

Overview


There is an urgent need to understand and respond to the health needs of survivors
of hate-based violence. Manifestations of prejudice and hate occur all over the world.
Hate-based violence is defined as violence against a person that is motivated by bias
and prejudice against the person’s perceived group membership (Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 2013; Green, McFalls, & Smith, 2001; Victorian Equal Opportunity and
Human Rights Commission, 2010). Group membership might be classified in terms
of race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, national origin,
disability, or other personal characteristics.

The aim of this briefing paper is to review existing research on the traumatic impact
of hate-based violence and the mental health needs of survivors and communities
affected by this type of violence. Understanding how hate-based violence can lead to
serious and potentially chronic traumatic stress reactions (including but not limited
to posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and complex forms of traumatic stress
symptoms) can provide a framework for reducing the stigma experienced by survivors
and increasing their access to effective treatments. The perspective that traumatic
stress reactions and related symptoms may result from experiences of hate-based
violence has been proposed by many scholars (e.g. Bryant-Davis & Ocampo, 2005;
Mitchell and Nell, 2017; Scurfield & Mackey, 2001). Hate-based violence may occur in
the form of a single potentially traumatic event or multiple traumatic events that are
repeated and prolonged. Existing research suggests that hate-based violence is often
traumatic for the survivor, the survivor’s community, and society at large. However,
direct and systematic research on the traumatic impact of hate-based violence is still
very limited and has mostly been carried out in developed countries (Dzelme, 2008).